IMPACT ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT

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Most studies on population migration tend to suggest generally that the economic welfare motive seems to be the major reason why people decide to move from one place to the other UN (1983). A general look at the situation in the country shows that, this irregular and dangerous migration is impacting on the country negatively. This is because in a bid to survive this situation, those that are often transported out of the country are mostly the best brains who have now helped in the development of other countries. Presently, the supply of skilled people in our area can be said to be inadequate due to a number of constraints that hinder human resources development and capacity building. In the case of Nigeria, the primary cause of external brain drain is the unreasonably low wages paid to professionals. The contradiction is that we spend four billion dollars annually to recruit and pay 100,000 expatriates to work in different parts of the country but fail to spend a proportional amount to recruit the 250,000 Nigerian and other African professionals now working outside the continent . Findings indicate that visa applications by Nigerians to embassies of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and the United Arab Emirates had increased in the past 12 months. On a daily basis desperate applicants besiege the embassies of economically-prosperous countries where they believe they could get better economic deals. For instance, between January 2015 and March 2016, the UK mission in Nigeria recorded that d it issued visas to 14,231 Nigerians, making them one of the top 10 nationalities granted visas in the world. Others are China, 92,715; India, 84,663; US, 34,278; Australia, 21,605 and Pakistan, 17,664. The list also includes Saudi Arabia, 17,586; Turkey, 13,474; Philippines, 13,262; and Russia, 12,503. Data from the mission show that there is a 25 per cent decrease in the number of visitor visa grants to Nigerians in the last one year, Russians (32 per cent), Pakistanis (20 per cent), Bangladeshis (39 per cent) and Iraq (52 per cent). Findings also showed that at least 220,000 Nigerians applied for non-immigrant visas to the US Mission in Nigeria in 2014, but only 66 per cent of tourist visa applications were approved. But the mission received over 300,000 applications for 2015 fiscal year which started in October, 2014 and ended in September, 2015. In 2015, 2,031 Nigerians were issued preference visa for employment by the US, which is the highest in Africa. This was followed by Ethiopia, 1,569; Egypt, 953; Ghana, 930; Kenya, 452; Cameroon, 429; and Cape Verde, 699.Preliminary data for fiscal year 2015 from the US embassy further show that 156,147 Nigerians were granted non-immigrant visas (including border crossing cards) compared to 141,527 in 2014. Checks indicate that the numbers of Nigerians leaving the country has been steadily increasing year by year. In 2010, 64,279 Nigerians were issued visas by the US mission in Nigeria, but the number dropped to  63,503 in 2011. In 2012, the figure increased to 83,944 and to 113,503 in 2013 and to 141,527 in 2014. It was gathered that 42 Nigerians were granted special immigrant visas out of the 116 issued to Africans last year. All these would have in one way or the other contributed to the meaningful development of their home country. According to Aredo (2000), it is rather the out migration of skilled manpower from developing country like Nigeria, trained with scarce resources and desperately needed for the management of the development process that can be described as brain drain. Thus, it is apt to state that brain drain is a special type of international migration (intellectual hemorrhage) of skilled professionals and knowledge from the country and Nigeria is already deficient in these resources. The Table below shows clearly foreigners charged for encouraging , exploiting , aiding and abetting prostitution. In the case of Africa, the total number of persons charged as at 1994, were 57, while the number for women was 17. In the continent it is clear that Nigeria is ahead in this.

S/NO

Countries of Origin

Number of persons charged

Number of women

1

Algeria

1

0

2

Cameroun

1

1

3

Egypt

2

0

4

Ghana

2

1

5

Ethiopia

8

2

6

Morocco

3

0

7

Nigeria

18

9

8

Senegal

5

1

9

Tunisia

12

1

10

Others

5

2